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Their waters are discharged into Mobile Bay through the Mobile and Tensaw rivers. In the far north the Tennessee valley contains dark loams and red clays that add vivid dashes of colour to the landscape when exposed.Farther south lie the varied soils of a mineral belt, and these are succeeded by the rich limestone and marl soils of the Black Belt.
Farther south stretch piney woods and then coastal plains until one reaches the moss-draped live oaks of Mobile and the white beaches of the gulf.The 53 miles (85 km) of coastline have occasional swamps and bayous, backed by timber growth on sandy soils and fronted by stretches of white sand beaches.The Cumberland Plateau region drains to the northwest through the Tennessee River and the often deep valleys of its tributaries, with much water retained in large scenic lakes formed in the 1930s by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA).Although Alabama continues to reside in the lower segment nationally in many significant social and economic rankings, there has been improvement in some areas, particularly in ethnic relations, including the integration of schools and the election of African Americans to political offices.Nevertheless, Alabamians and outsiders alike tend to agree that the state retains a distinctive way of life, rooted in the traditions of the Old South. Population (2010) 4,779,736; (2016 est.) 4,863,300. Although the average elevation of Alabama is about 500 feet (150 metres) above sea level, this represents a gradation from the high point of 2,407 feet (734 metres), atop Cheaha Mountain in the northeast, down across the Black Belt to the flat, low southern Gulf Coast counties.Alabama, constituent state of the United States of America, admitted in 1819 as the 22nd state.
Alabama forms a roughly rectangular shape on the map, elongated in a north-south direction.
Precipitation is fairly evenly distributed throughout the year, with an annual average of 56 inches (1,420 mm) and a concentration on the coast. These favourable conditions have given the state a long growing season, ranging from about 200 days in the north to some 300 days in the south.
Alabama is subject to severe weather, especially during the warmer months.
Occasionally the temperature may rise to 100 °F (38 °C) in the summer, whereas frosts occur with more frequency; snow may sometimes fall in the northern counties.
The average summer temperature is 79 °F (26 °C); the winter average is 48 °F (9 °C).
Within this gradation, several relief regions may be distinguished.