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Californios is the term for the Spanish-speaking residents of modern-day California; they were the original Mexicans (regardless of race) and local Hispanicized Indians in the region (Alta California) before the United States acquired it as a territory.

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The California economy was based on agriculture and livestock.In contrast to central New Spain, coastal colonists found little mineral wealth.Some became farmers or ranchers, working for themselves on their own land or for other colonists.Communities of Spanish-speaking Tejanos, Nuevomexicanos, Californios and Mission Indians have existed in the American southwest since the area was part of New Spain's Provincias Internas.The majority of these historically Hispanophone populations eventually adopted English as their first language as part of their overall Americanization.Government officials, priests, soldiers, and artisans settled in towns, missions, and presidios.

One of the most important events in the history of Mexican settlers in California occurred in 1833, when the Mexican Government secularized the missions.

But later on, as Mayor of San Antonio, he and other Tejanos felt the hostile encroachments of the growing Anglo power against them.

After receiving a series of death threats, Seguín relocated his family in Mexico, where he was coerced into military service and fought against the US in 1846–1848 Mexican–American War.

) are Americans of full or partial Mexican descent.

As of July 2016, Mexican Americans made up 11.2% of the United States' population, as 36.3 million U. residents identified as being of full or partial Mexican ancestry.

As early as 1813, some of the Tejanos who colonized Texas in the Spanish Colonial Period established a government in Texas that desired independence from Spanish-ruled Mexico.